Archive for August, 2009

What About Punishment?
Not only is it unnecessary to personally punish dogs, it is abusive. No matter how convinced you are that your dog “knows right from wrong”, in reality he will associate personal punishment with the punisher. The resulting cowering, “guilty”-looking postures are actually displays of submission and fear. Later, when the punisher isn’t around and the coast is clear, the same behavior he was punished for—such as raiding a trash can – might bring a self-delivered, very tasty result. The punished dog hasn’t learned not to misbehave; he has learned to not get caught.

Purely Positive Reinforcement
With positive training, we emphasize teaching dogs what they should do to earn reinforcements, rather than punishing them for unwanted behaviors.
– Focus on teaching “do” rather than “don’t.” For example, a sitting dog isn’t jumping.
– Use positive reinforcers that are valuable to your dog and the situation: A tired dog values rest; a confined dog values freedom.
– Play (appropriately)!
– Be a consistent leader.
– Set your dog up for success by anticipating and preventing problems.
– Notice and reward desirable behavior, and give him lots of attention when he is being good.
– Train ethically. Use humane methods and equipment that do not frighten or hurt your dog.
– When you are angry, walk away and plan a positive strategy.
– Keep practice sessions short and sweet. Five to ten minutes, three to five times a day is best.

Does punishment ever have a place in dog training? Many people will heartily insist it does not. But dog owners often get frustrated as they try to stick to the path of all-positive reinforcement. It sure sounds great, but is it realistic, or even natural, to never say “no” to your dog?
A wild dog’s life is not all positive. Hunger and thirst are both examples of negative reinforcement; the resulting discomfort motivates the wild dog to seek food and water. He encounters natural aversives such as pesky insects; mats in his coat; cold days; rainy days; sweltering hot days; and occasional run-ins with thorns, brambles, skunks, bees, and other nastiness. These all affect his behavior, as he tries to avoid the bad stuff whenever possible. The wild dog also occasionally encounters social punishers from others in his group when he gets too pushy. Starting with a growl or a snap from Mom, and later some mild and ritualized discipline from other members of his four-legged family, he learns to modify behaviors that elicit grouchy responses.
Our pet dogs don’t naturally experience all positive results either, because they learn from their surroundings and from social experiences with other dogs. Watch a group of pet dogs playing together and you’ll see a very old educational system still being used. As they wrestle and attempt to assert themselves, you’ll notice many mouth-on-neck moments. Their playful biting is inhibited, with no intention to cause harm, but their message is clear: “Say uncle or this could hurt more!”
Observing that punishment does occur in nature, some people may feel compelled to try to be like the big wolf with their pet dogs. Becoming aggressive or heavy-handed with your pet will backfire! Your dog will not be impressed, nor will he want to follow you. Punishment causes dogs to change their behavior to avoid or escape discomfort and threats. Threatened dogs will either become very passive and offer submissive, appeasing postures, attempt to flee, or rise to the occasion and fight back. When people personally punish their dogs in an angry manner, one of these three defensive mechanisms will be triggered. Which one depends on a dog’s genetic temperament as well as his past social experiences. Since we don’t want to make our pets feel the need to avoid or escape us, personal punishment has no place in our training.

Remote Consequences

Sometimes, however, all-positive reinforcement is just not enough. That’s because not all reinforcement comes from us. An inappropriate behavior can be self-reinforcing – just doing it makes the dog feel better in some way, whether you are there to say “good boy!” or not. Some examples are eating garbage, pulling the stuffing out of your sofa, barking at passersby, or urinating on the floor.
Although you don’t want to personally punish your dog, the occasional deterrent may be called for to help derail these kinds of self-rewarding misbehaviors. In these cases, mild forms of impersonal or remote punishment can be used as part of a correction. The goal isn’t to make your dog feel bad or to “know he has done wrong,” but to help redirect him to alternate behaviors that are more acceptable to you.

The Problems with Personal Punishment
– Personally punished dogs are not taught appropriate behaviors.
– Personally punished dogs only stop misbehaving when they are caught or interrupted, but they don’t learn not to misbehave when they are alone. Personally punished dogs become shy, fearful, and distrusting.
– Personally punished dogs may become defensively aggressive.
– Personally punished dogs become suppressed and inhibited.
– Personally punished dogs become stressed, triggering stress-reducing behaviors that their owners interpret as acts of spite, triggering even more punishment. Personally punished dogs have stressed owners. Personally punished dogs may begin to repeat behaviors they have been taught will result in negative, but predictable, attention.
– Personally punished dogs are more likely to be given away than are positively trained dogs.

You do this by pairing a slightly startling, totally impersonal sound with an equally impersonal and very mild remote consequence. The impersonal sound might be a single shake of an empty plastic pop bottle with pennies in it, held out of your dog’s sight. Or you could use a vocal expression such as “eh!” delivered with you looking away from your misbehaving dog.
Pair your chosen sound – the penny bottle or “eh!” – with either a slight tug on his collar or a sneaky spritz on the rump from a water bottle. Do this right as he touches something he should not; bad timing will confuse your dog and undermine your training success.
To keep things under your control and make sure you get the timing right, it’s best to do this as a setup. “Accidentally” drop a shoe on the floor, and then help your dog learn some things are best avoided. As he sniffs the shoe say “eh!” without looking at him and give a slight tug against his collar. This sound will quickly become meaningful as a correction all by itself – sometimes after just one setup – making the tug correction obsolete. The tug lets your dog see that you were right; going for that shoe was a bad idea! Your wise dog will be more likely to heed your warning next time, and probably move closer to you where it’s safe. Be a good friend and pick up the nasty shoe. He’ll be relieved, and you’ll look heroic. Later, when he’s home alone and encounters a stray shoe, he’ll want to give it a wide berth.
Your negative marking sound will come in handy in the future, when your dog begins to venture down the wrong behavioral path. The goal is not to announce your disapproval or to threaten your dog. You are not telling him to stop or showing how you feel about his behavior. You are sounding a warning to a friend who’s venturing off toward danger – “I wouldn’t if I were you!” Suddenly, there is an abrupt, rather startling, noise! Now is the moment to redirect him and help him earn positive reinforcement. That interrupted behavior will become something he wants to avoid in the future, but he won’t want to avoid you.

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Labrador Retriever training is a learning adventure on both ends of the leash. Before attempting to teach their dog new behaviors or change unwanted ones, thoughtful dog owners take the time to understand why their pets behave the way they do, and how their own behavior can be either a positive or negative influence on their dog.

Canine Nature

Loving dogs as much as we do, it’s easy to forget they are a completely different species. Despite sharing our homes and living as appreciated members of our families, dogs do not think or learn exactly the same way people do. Even if you love your dog like a child, you must remember to respect the fact that he is actually a dog.
Dogs have no idea when their behavior is inappropriate from a human perspective. They are not aware of the value of possessions they chew or of messes they make or the worry they sometimes seem to cause. While people tend to look at behavior as good and bad or right and wrong, dogs just discover what works and what doesn’t work. Then they behave accordingly, learning from their own experiences and increasing or reducing behaviors to improve results for themselves.
You might wonder, “But don’t dogs want to please us”? My answer is yes, provided your pleasure reflects back to them in positive ways they can feel and appreciate. Dogs do things for dog reasons, and everything they do works for them in some way or they wouldn’t be doing it!

The Social Dog

Our pets descended from animals who lived in tightly knit, cooperative social groups. Though far removed in appearance and lifestyle from their ancestors, our dogs still relate in many of the same ways their wild relatives did. And in their relationships with one another, wild canids either lead or follow.
Canine ranking relationships are not about cruelty and power; they are about achievement and abilities. Competent dogs with high levels of drive and confidence step up, while deferring dogs step aside. But followers don’t get the short end of the stick; they benefit from the security of having a more competent dog at the helm.
Our domestic dogs still measure themselves against other members of their group – us! Dog owners whose actions lead to positive results have willing, secure followers. But dogs may step up and fill the void or cut loose and do their own thing when their people fail to show capable leadership. When dogs are pushy, aggressive, and rude, or independent and unwilling, it’s not because they have designs on the role of “master”. It is more likely that their owners failed to provide consistent leadership.
Dogs in training benefit from their handler’s good leadership. Their education flows smoothly because they are impressed. Being in charge doesn’t require you to physically dominate or punish your dog. You simply need to make some subtle changes in the way you relate to him every day.

Lead Your Pack!

Create schedules and structure daily activities. Dogs are creatures of habit and routines will create security. Feed meals at the same times each day and also try to schedule regular walks, training practices, and toilet outings. Your predictability will help your dog be patient.
Ask your dog to perform a task. Before releasing him to food or freedom, have him do something as simple as sit on command. Teach him that cooperation earns great results!
Give a release prompt (such as “let’s go”) when going through doors leading outside. This is a better idea than allowing your impatient pup to rush past you.
Pet your dog when he is calm, not when he is excited. Turn your touch into a tool that relaxes and settles.
Reward desirable rather than inappropriate behavior. Petting a jumping dog (who hasn’t been invited up) reinforces jumping. Pet sitting dogs, and only invite lap dogs up after they’ve first “asked” by waiting for your invitation.
Replace personal punishment with positive reinforcement. Show a dog what to do, and motivate him to want to do it, and there will be no need to punish him for what he should not do. Dogs naturally follow, without the need for force or harshness.
Play creatively and appropriately. Your dog will learn the most about his social rank when he is playing with you. During play, dogs work to control toys and try to get the best of one another in a friendly way. The wrong sorts of play can create problems: For example, tug of war can lead to aggressiveness. Allowing your dog to control toys during play may result in possessive guarding when he has something he really values, such as a bone. Dogs who are chased during play may later run away from you when you approach to leash them. The right kinds of play will help increase your dog’s social confidence while you gently assert your leadership.

How Dogs Learn (And How They Don’t)

Dog training begins as a meeting of minds – yours and your dog’s. Though the end goal may be to get your dog’s body to behave in a specific way, training starts as a mind game. Your dog is learning all the time by observing the consequences of his actions and social interactions. He is always seeking out what he perceives as desirable and trying to avoid what he perceives as undesirable.
He will naturally repeat a behavior that either brings him more good stuff or makes bad stuff go away (these are both types of reinforcement). He will naturally avoid a behavior that brings him more bad stuff or makes the good stuff go away (these are both types of punishment).
Both reinforcement and punishment can be perceived as either the direct result of something the dog did himself, or as coming from an outside source.

Using Life’s Rewards

Your best friend is smart, and he is also cooperative. When the best things in life can only be had by working with you, your dog will view you as a facilitator. You unlock doors to all of the positively reinforcing experiences he values: his freedom, his friends at the park, food, affection, walks, and play. The trained dog accompanies you through those doors and waits to see what working with you will bring.
Rewarding your dog for good behavior is called positive reinforcement, and, as we’ve just seen, it increases the likelihood that he will repeat that behavior. The perfect reward is anything your dog wants that is safe and appropriate. Don’t limit yourself to toys, treats, and things that come directly from you. Harness life’s positives – barking at squirrels, chasing a falling leaf, bounding away from you at the dog park, pausing for a moment to sniff everything—and allow your dog to earn access to those things as rewards that come from cooperating with you. When he looks at you, when he sits, when he comes when you call – any prompted behavior can earn one of life’s rewards. When he works with you, he earns the things he most appreciates; but when he tries to get those things on his own, he cannot. Rather than see you as someone who always says “no,” your dog will view you as the one who says “let’s go!” He will want to follow.

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Training Your Labrador RetrieverTraining makes your best friend better! A properly trained dog has a happier life and a longer life expectancy. He is also more appreciated by the people he encounters each day, both at home and out and about.
A trained dog walks nicely and joins his family often, going places untrained dogs cannot go. He is never rude or unruly, and he always happily comes when called. When he meets people for the first time, he greets them by sitting and waiting to be petted, rather than jumping up. At home he doesn’t compete with his human family, and alone he is not destructive or overly anxious. He isn’t continually nagged with words like “no”, since he has learned not to misbehave in the first place. He is never shamed, harshly punished, or treated unkindly, and he is a well-loved, involved member of the family.
Sounds good, doesn’t it? If you are willing to invest some time, thought, and patience, the words above could soon be used to describe your dog (though perhaps changing “he” to “she”). Educating your pet in a positive way is fun and easy, and there is no better gift you can give your pet than the guarantee of improved understanding and a great relationship.
This chapter will explain how to offer kind leadership, reshape your pet’s behavior in a positive and practical way, and even get a head start on simple obedience training.

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As Your Labrador Retriever Grows OlderLabrador Retrievers can, on average, live 12 to 14 years. However, to live that long and remain happy and healthy, your Lab will need your help. Aging in dogs, as in people, brings some changes and problems. You will see your dog’s vision dim, her hearing fade, and her joints stiffen. Heart and kidney disease are common in older dogs. Reflexes will not be as sharp as they once were, and your dog may be more sensitive to heat and cold. Your dog may also get grouchy, showing less tolerance to younger dogs, to children, and to things that may not be part of her normal routine.
An old dog who has lived her life with you is a special gift. Your old Lab knows your ways, your likes and dislikes, and your habits. She almost seems able to read your mind, and her greatest joy is simply to be close to you. Your old Lab may not be able to do the work she did when she was younger, but she can still be a wonderful companion.
Arthritis is common in old dogs. The joints get stiff, especially when it’s chilly. Your Lab may have trouble jumping or getting up in the morning. Give your old dog something soft to sleep on and keep her warm. Talk to your veterinarian about treatment; there are pain relievers that can help.
As your dog’s activity level slows down, she will need to consume fewer calories. However, some old dogs have a problem digesting foods, too, and this may show up in poor stools and a dull coat. A heaping tablespoon of yogurt with active cultures will aid her digestion.
Your Lab may need to have her teeth cleaned professionally, and this is something you should not put off doing. Bacteria that build up on the teeth can infect the gums, get into the bloodstream, and cause infections in other parts of the body, including the kidneys and heart.
Exercise is still important to your older Labrador Retriever. Your dog needs the stimulation of walking around and seeing and smelling the world. Tailor the exercise to your dog’s abilities and needs. If your dog can still chase a tennis ball, great! If she likes to swim, even better. However, as your dog ages, a slow walk about the neighborhood might be enough.

When It’s Time to Say Good-bye

We have the option, with our dogs, not to let them suffer when they are old, ill, and infirm. There will be a time when you will need to decide how you are going to handle putting your dog out of her pain. Some feel the time has come when the dog is no longer enjoying life, when she’s incontinent and despondent. Only you can make the decision, but spare your companion the humiliation of incontinence, convulsions, or the inability to stand up or move around.
If your Lab must be helped to her death, your veterinarian can give an injection that is an overdose of anesthetic. Your dog will go to sleep and quietly stop breathing. Be there with your dog. Let your arms hold your old friend and let your dog hear your voice saying how much you love her as she goes to sleep. There will be no fear, and the last thing your dog will remember is your love.

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If your Lab is pawing at her mouth, gagging, coughing, or drooling, she may have something caught in her mouth or throat. Open her jaws and shine a flashlight down the throat. If you can see the object, reach in and pull it out, using your fingers, tweezers, or a pair of pliers. If you cannot see anything and your dog is still choking, hit her behind the neck between the shoulders to try to dislodge the object. If this fails, use an adapted Heimlich maneuver. Grasp either side of the dog’s ribcage and squeeze. Don’t break the ribs, but try to make a sharp enough movement to cause the air in the lungs to force the object out.
– Your dog has unexplained swelling or redness
– Your dog’s appetite changes
– Your dog vomits repeatedly and can’t seem to keep food down, or drools excessively while eating. You see any changes in your dog’s urination or defecation (pain during elimination, change in regular habits, blood in urine or stool, diarrhea, foul-smelling stool)
– Your dog scoots her rear end on the floor
– Your dog’s energy level, attitude, or behavior changes for no apparent reason
– Your dog has crusty or cloudy eyes, or excessive tearing or discharge
– Your dog’s nose is dry or chapped, hot, crusty, or runny
– Your dog’s ears smell foul, have a dark discharge, or seem excessively waxy
– Your dog’s gums are inflamed or bleeding, her teeth look brown, or her breath is foul. Your dog’s skin is red, flaky, itchy, or inflamed, or she keeps chewing at certain spots
– Your dog’s coat is dull, dry, brittle, or bare in spots
– Your dog’s paws are red, swollen, tender, cracked, or the nails are split or too long
– Your dog  is panting  excessively, wheezing, unable to catch  her breath, breathing heavily, or sounds strange when she breathes
If your dog can breathe around the object, get to the vet as soon as possible. If your dog cannot breathe around the object, you don’t have time to move the dog. Keep working on getting the object out.


Because your Lab will be in great pain if she has broken a bone, you should muzzle her immediately. Do not try to set the fracture, but do try to immobilize the limb, if possible, by using a piece of wood and then wrapping it with gauze or soft cloth. If there is a door or board handy, use it as a backboard or stretcher so the injured limb is stable. Transport the dog to the vet as soon as possible.

Overheating or Heatstroke

Overheating or heatstroke is characterized by rapid or difficult breathing, vomiting, and even collapse. If your dog has these symptoms, you need to act at once – this can be life threatening. Immediately place your Lab in a tub of cool water or, if a tub is not available, run water from a hose over your dog. Use a rectal thermometer to take the dog’s temperature and call your veterinarian immediately. Encourage your dog to drink some cool water. Transport the dog to the vet as soon as you can, or as soon as the vet recommends it.


Symptoms of poisoning include retching and vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, labored breathing, dilated pupils, weakness, collapse, and convulsions. Sometimes one or more symptoms will appear together, depending upon the poison. If you suspect your dog has been in contact with a poison, time is critical. Call your veterinarian right away. If your vet is not immediately available, call the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center. The hotline and your vet can better treat your dog if you can tell them what was ingested and approximately how much.

ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center
The ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center has a staff of licensed veterinarians and board-certified toxicologists available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The number to call is (888) 426-4435. You will be charged a consultation fee of $60 per case, charged to most major credit cards. There is no charge for follow-up calls in critical cases. At your request, they will also contact your veterinarian. Specific treatment and information can be provided via fax. Put the number in large, legible print with your other emergency telephone numbers. Be prepared to give your name, address, and phone number; what your dog has gotten into (the amount and how long ago); your dog’s breed, age, sex, and weight; and what signs and symptoms the dog is showing.


Without getting bitten yourself, try to get a look at the snake, making note of colors, patterns, and markings so you or your vet can identify the snake. Keep the dog as quiet as possible to restrict the flow of venom. Do not cut X ’s above the wound. That often causes more tissue damage than the bite itself, and is not known to be effective.
If your dog is in pain or is frantic, muzzle her. Call your vet immediately so that they can get some antivenom medication ready for your dog’s arrival.

Torn Nails

A ripped or broken toenail can be very painful. If the dog is frantic, muzzle her to protect yourself. If a piece of the nail is hanging, trim it off. Run hydrogen peroxide over the nail. If the nail is bleeding, run it over a soft bar of soap. The soap will help the nail clot. If the quick is showing or if the nail has broken off under the skin, call your veterinarian. Antibiotics might be needed to prevent an infection.


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Labrador Retriever - Emergency First AidYour Labrador Retriever cannot tell you, “I have a pain right here, and I feel like I’m going to throw up”. But you should be able to recognize signs that something is not right. When you are trying to decide what is wrong with your Lab, you will need to be observant and play detective. If you call your veterinarian, they will also ask you some questions, and you need to be able to answer those.
– What caused you to think there is a problem?
– What was your first clue there’s something wrong?
– Is your Labrador Retriever eating normally?
– What do her stools look like?
– Is the dog limping?
– When you do a hands-on exam, is the dog sore anywhere?
– Does she have a lump?
– Is anything red or swollen?
Write down all your answers before you call your veterinarian. Your vet will also ask you if your dog has a fever. You can take your dog’s temperature using a rectal thermometer. Shake the thermometer down and then put some petroleum jelly on it. Using the dog’s tail as a guide, insert the thermometer into the anus about an inch. Keep holding the thermometer, don’t let go of it, and watch your clock. After three minutes (digital thermometers will be faster), withdraw the thermometer, wipe it off, and read the temperature. Normal is 101 to 102 degrees Fahrenheit.
The veterinarian will also ask if your dog has been vomiting and if so, what did the vomit look like? Was there anything unusual in it? Did the dog vomit up garbage? a plastic bag? grass? How often did the dog vomit—just once or is it ongoing?
Similar questions will be asked about the dog’s bowel movements. Did the dog have a bowel movement? If so, did it look normal? Was there mucus or blood in the stool? Did the stool have a different or peculiar smell? Did you see any foreign objects in the stool?

How to Make a Canine First-Aid Kit

If your dog hurts herself, even a minor cut, it can be very upsetting for both of you. Having a first-aid kit handy will help you to help her, calmly and efficiently. What should be in your canine first-aid kit?

– Antibiotic ointment
– Antiseptic and antibacterial cleansing wipes
– Benadryl
– Cotton-tipped applicators
– Disposable razor
– Elastic wrap bandages
 Extra leash and collar
– First-aid tape of various widths
– Gauze bandage roll
– Gauze pads of different sizes, including eye pads
– Hydrogen peroxide
– Instant cold compress
– Kaopectate tablets or liquid
– Latex gloves
– Lubricating jelly
– Muzzle
– Nail clippers
– Pen, pencil, and paper for notes and directions
– Pepto-Bismol
– Round-ended scissors and pointy scissors
– Safety pins
– Sterile saline eyewash
– Thermometer (rectal)
– Tweezers

Be prepared to answer all these questions, and if you are nervous or scared, write them down.
It is often difficult for dog owners to decide when to call the veterinarian and when they can handle a problem at home. Listed in this section are some commonly seen problems and some basic advice on how to handle them. You’ll also find advice on when to call the vet in the box on pages 94–95. However, the cost of a telephone call is small compared to your dog’s life. When in doubt – call!

Animal Bites

Muzzle your dog if she is in pain. Using a pair of panty hose or a long piece of gauze, wrap it around the dog’s muzzle, crossing under the jaw, then pulling it around her head, tying it in the back.
Trim the hair from around the wound and liberally pour plain water over it to flush it out. Use antibacterial wipes to clean it. A handheld pressure bandage can help stop the bleeding. Stitches may be necessary if the bite is a rip or tear, so call your vet. They may also recommend putting the dog on antibiotics.

Bee Stings

Many dogs are allergic to bee stings and will immediately start to swell. Call your vet immediately. They may recommend you give the dog an antihistamine such as Benadryl and will instruct you on the dosage. With the introduction of African bees, many bees today are more aggressive, and the chance of your dog being stung multiple times is increased. The stingers are hard to see in the Lab’s coat, so use your fingers to feel for them or the swollen lumps left behind.


Muzzle your dog if she is in pain. Place a gauze pad or, if that is not available, a clean cloth over the wound and apply pressure. If the wound will require stitches or if the bleeding doesn’t stop, call your vet.

When to Call the Veterinarian

Go to the vet right away or take your dog to an emergency veterinary clinic if:
– Your dog is choking
– Your dog is having trouble breathing
Your dog has been injured and you cannot stop the bleeding within a few minutes
– Your dog has been stung or bitten by an insect and the site is swelling
– Your dog has been bitten by a snake
– Your dog has been bitten by another animal (including a dog) and shows any swelling or bleeding
– Your dog has touched, licked, or in any way been exposed to a poison
– Your dog has been burned by either heat or caustic chemicals
– Your dog has been hit by a car
– Your dog has any obvious broken bones or cannot put any weight on one of her limbs
– Your dog has a seizure
Make an appointment to see the vet as soon as possible if:
– Your dog has been bitten by a cat, another dog, or a wild animal
– Your dog has been injured and is still limping an hour later.

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Labrador Retriever – Internal ParasitesInternal parasites live inside, and you may not see any signs of an infestation until it has progressed.


These long white worms are the most commonly found internal parasites, especially in puppies, although they occasionally infest adult dogs and people. The adult female roundworm can lay up to 200,000 eggs a day, which are passed in the dog’s feces. Roundworms can be transmitted only via the feces. Because of this, stools should be picked up daily, and your dog should be prevented from investigating other dogs’ feces.
If treated early, roundworms are not serious. However, a heavy infestation can severely affect a dog’s health. Puppies with roundworms will not thrive and will appear thin, with a dull coat and potbelly. In people, roundworms can be more serious. Therefore, early treatment, regular fecal checks, and good sanitation are important, both for your Labrador Retrievers continued good health and yours.


Hookworms live their adult lives in the small intestines of dogs and other animals. They attach to the intestinal wall and suck blood. When they detach and move to a new location, the old wound continues to bleed because of the anticoagulant the worm injects when it bites. Because of this, bloody diarrhea is usually the first sign of a problem.
Hookworm eggs are passed through the feces. Either they are picked up from the stools, as with roundworms, or, if conditions are right, they hatch in the soil and attach themselves to the feet of their new hosts, where they can burrow through the skin. They then migrate to the intestinal tract, where the cycle starts all over again.
People can pick up hookworms by walking barefoot in infected soil. In the Sunbelt states, children often pick up hookworm eggs when playing outside in the dirt or in a sandbox. Treatment, for both dogs and people, may have to be repeated.


Tapeworms attach to the intestinal wall to absorb nutrients. They grow by creating new segments, and usually the first sign of an infestation is the ricelike segments found in the stools or on the dog’s coat near the rectum. Tapeworms are acquired when a dog chews a flea bite and swallows a flea, the intermediate host. Therefore, a good flea control program is the best way to prevent a tapeworm infestation.


Adult whipworms live in the large intestines, where they feed on blood. The eggs are passed in the stool and can live in the soil for many years. If your dog eats the fresh spring grass or buries her bone in the yard, she can pick up eggs from the infected soil. If you garden, you could pick up eggs under your fingernails, infecting yourself if you touch your face.
Heavy infestations cause diarrhea, often watery or bloody. The dog may appear thin and anemic, with a poor coat. Severe bowel problems may result. Unfortunately, whipworms can be difficult to detect, as the worms do not continually shed eggs. Therefore, a stool sample may be clear one day and the next day show eggs.


Giardia is common in wild animals in many areas, so if you take your Lab hiking, camping, or herding and drink out of the local spring or stream, she can pick up giardia, just as you can. Diarrhea is one of the first symptoms. If your dog has diarrhea and you and your dog have been out camping, make sure you tell your veterinarian.


Adult heartworms live in the upper heart and greater pulmonary arteries, where they damage the vessel walls. Poor circulation results, which causes damage to other bodily functions. Eventually, death from heart failure results.
The adult worms produce thousands of tiny larvae called microfilaria. These circulate throughout the bloodstream until they are sucked up by an intermediate host, a mosquito. The microfilaria go through the larval stages in the mosquito, then are transferred back to another dog when the mosquito bites again.
Dogs infected with heartworms can be treated if caught early. Unfortunately, the treatment itself can be risky and has killed some dogs. However, preventive medications are available that kill the larvae. Heartworm can be diagnosed by a blood test, and a negative result is required before starting the preventive

Why Spay and Neuter?
Breeding dogs is a serious undertaking that should only be part of a well-planned breeding program. Why? Because dogs pass on their physical and behavioral problems to their offspring. Even healthy well-behaved dogs can pass on problems in their genes.
Is your dog so sweet that you’d like to have a litter of puppies just like her? If you breed her to another dog, the pups will not have the same genetic heritage she has. Breeding her parents again will increase the odds of a similar pup, but even then, the puppies in the second litter could inherit different genes. In fact, there is no way to breed a dog to be just like another dog.
Meanwhile, thousands and thousands of dogs are killed in animal shelters every year simply because they have no homes. Casual breeding is a big contributor to this problem.
If you don’t plan to breed your dog, is it still a good idea to spay her or neuter him? Yes!
When you spay your female:
– You avoid her heat cycles, during which she discharges blood and scent.
– It greatly reduces the risk of mammary cancer and eliminates the risk of pyometra (an often fatal infection of the uterus) and uterine cancer.
– It prevents unwanted pregnancies.
– It reduces dominance behaviors and aggression.
When you neuter your male:
– It curbs the desire to roam and to fight with other males.
– It greatly reduces the risk of prostate cancer and eliminates the risk of testicular cancer.
– It helps reduce leg lifting and mounting behavior.
– It reduces dominance behaviors and aggression

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